Learning about Proteins
Proteins are the building blocks of muscle, hair, skin and much more. By reaching the necessary amounts of protein intake for your body you can build and maintain muscle as well as lose fat. In fact, your body burns more calories digesting protein than it does for carbs or fat. Not only that, protein helps you feel fuller longer!
The recommended daily allowance is 0.8g/kg (0.4g/lb) of body weight (so about 80g of protein for a 200 pound person) – which can easily be reached through whole protein sources at each meal. However, athletes need a bit more protein per day, usually about 1.4-1.8g/kg if you are strength training or 1.2-1.4g/kg if you are endurance training. This extra requirement is often met through a supplemental protein shake either just before or right after a workout.
Urban legends have spread about the consumption of protein. It is often touted that too much protein can damage your kidneys, and while this is possible in severe excess, studies have shown that elevated protein intake under 2.8g/kg does not impair kidney function. Just as protein intake does not cause renal failure, it also does not cause weight gain (unless you increase your caloric intake).
The best sources of protein is through whole foods such as red meats, poultry, fish, dairy, eggs and nuts. If you are on a budget, here is a list of cheap protein sources:
- Canned Tuna – 40g of protein per can, if you eat 1 can per day or less your mercury intake should be within normal limits. Watch out, however for BPA.
- Whole Eggs – 7g of protein per egg. Don’t throw the yolk away! Dietary cholesterol doesn’t affect blood cholesterol in the ways previously claimed.
- Whey – 24g of protein per 30g serving
- Ground beef – 25g of protein per 100g of ground beef. You can reduce the amount of fat present by rinsing your ground beef first.
- Milk – 30g of protein per liter of milk. This is great if you can find raw milk in your area, but shy away from milk as a protein source if you are aiming to lose weight.
- Chicken breast – 25g of protein per 100g of chicken
Whey vs. Soy
Soy protein is one of the only plant based protein sources considered to be a “complete” protein source. Soy protein is found in soy isolate, tofu, soybeans, miso and soy milk and the clear winner if you are vegan or vegetarian.
Whey is also a “complete” protein derived from animals. Whey is absorbed quickly in the body and has been shown to help build muscle and increase strength. In addition, whey protein helps reduce oxidative stress and has the ability to act as an antioxidant, antihypertensive, antitumor, hypolipidemic, antiviral, antibacterial, and chelating agent.
Looking at the numbers, whey protein has an efficiency ratio of 3.2, a biological value of 104, 92% protein utilization and 100% digestability compared to an efficiency ratio of 2.2, biological value of 74, 61% utilization and 100% digestability for soy protein. This makes whey protein a clear winner for anyone other than vegetarians and vegans. Check out this table to see the breakdowns for other protein sources as well.
That wraps up our chat on proteins, next up is carbs!